ancient African civilizations; origins of Western civilizations
Martin Bernal retired from the Department of Near Eastern Studies in 2001. He is the author of Black Athena: the Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization (Rutgers University Press, 1987), which occasioned Black Athena: Ten Years After, ed. Wim M.J. van Binsbergen (Dutch Archaeological and Historical Society, 1997) and Black Athena Writes Back: Martin Bernal Responds to his Critics, ed. David Chioni Moore (Duke University Press, 2001).
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